• Українська
  • English
  • Русский
ISSN 2415-3400 (Online)
ISSN 1028-821X (Print)


Ovsyanikov, VV

Oles Honchar Dnipro National University
72, Gagarin Ave., Dnepr, 49010, Ukraine
E-mail: ovsyan_viktor@mail.ru

Language: Russian

The results of studies in the range of microwave radio characteristics of linear wire electrically small antennas, which important properties are small size and weight, are presented. In the studies theoretical approximate, rigorous, and experimental methods are applied. The calculations are performed by approximate and rigorous integral equation using modern computer software environments super NEC, FEKO and others. For the first time we propose the method of structural-parametric optimization and approximate analysis of antennas with included lumped inductive and capacitive loads in the emitting branches. Approximate formulas for determining the value include curved pin and loop antenna reactive loads and formulas to determine their input impedances. According to these formulas, we perform the calculations of the values of inductive and capacitive loads, which are confirmed experimentally. The results of theoretical and experimental studies of Q-factor and efficiency of pin, spiral and loop electrically small antennas with reactive loads included in their branches are presented for the first time. The results show that when reducing the electric size of arm of pin bent antennas to values of 0.01 to 0.03 with respect to the operating wavelength of conventional antennas arm size, the efficiencies of antennas are reduced to 20 % or less for values of Q-factor losses in the range of 130 to 1 000. From the efficiency measuring results it follows that shortening the electrical length of investigated antennas by half, relative to the usual size, both with included inductive load, and as a cylindrical helix, reduces the efficiency of these antennas from 100 % to 75…85 % as compared with conventional pin antennas. Shortening the electrical length reduces the efficiency of the antenna three times up to 40…50 %. Obviously further shortening leads to further reduction of antennas efficiency. The material contained in the article may be useful for research and development of electrically small and miniature antennas in microstrip and other performance.

Keywords: electrically small microwave antennas, input impedance, loop and spiral antennas, pin, Q-factor and efficiency of antennas, voltage standing-wave ratio

Manuscript submitted 30.11.2016
Radiofiz. elektron. 2017, 22(1): 57-67
Full text (PDF)

  1. WHEELER, H. A., 1947. Fundamental limitations of small antennas. Proc. IRE. December, vol. 35, pp. 1479–1488. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JRPROC.1947.226199
  2. SLIUSAR, V., 2007. 60 years the theory of electrically small antennas. Some results. Elektronika NTB. Iss. 7, pp. 10–19 (in Russian).
  3. FOURIE, A., NITCH, D., 2000. Super NEC: Antenna and Indoor– Propagation Simulation. IEEE Antennas and Propagation. Magaz. vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 31–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/74.848946
  4. GONCHARENKO, I. V., 2002. Computer modeling of antennas. Everything about the program MMANA. Moscow: IPRadioSoft, Zhurnal “Radio” (in Russian).
  5. BANKOV, S. E., KURUSHIN, A. A., 2008. Calculation of the radiated structures using FEKO. Moscow: ZAO “NPP Rodnik” (in Russian).
  6. MITTRA, R., ed. 1973. Computer technicques for electro-magnetics. vol. 7, New York, Toronto: Pergamon Press Oxf.
  7. PISTOL'KORS, A. A., 1947. Antennas. Moscow, USSR: Svyaz'izdat (in Russian).
  8. KING, R. W. P., 1956. Theory of Linear Antennas. Camb-ridge, Mass.: Harward University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674182189
  9. KING, R. W. P., 1959. The Rectangular Loop Antenna as a Dipole. IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Prop. January, vol. AP–7, no. 1, pp. 53–61.
  10. HARRISON, C. W., KING, R. W. P., 1961. Folded Dipoles and Loops. IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Prop. May, vol. AP–9, no. 2, pp. 171–187.
  11. HARRISON, C. W., 1963. Monopole with Inductive Loading. IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Prop. July, vol. AP–11, no. 4, pp. 394–400.
  12. MOISEEV, N. N., IVANILOV, Yu. P., STOLYAROVA, E. M., 1978. Optimization methods. Moscow, USSR: Nauka (in Russian).
  13. NIKOLSKY, V. V., 1966. Antennas. Moscow, USSR: Svyaz' (in Russian).
  14. DRABKIN, A. L., ZUZENKO, V. L. 1961. Antenna-feeder devices. Moscow, USSR: Sovetskoe radio (in Russian).
  15. HANSEN, R. C., 1975. Optimum Inductive Loading of Short Whip Antennas. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. May, vol. VT–24, no. 2, pp. 21–29.
  16. OVSYANIKOV, V. V., ROMANENKO, E. D., KORNI-ENKO, S. I., 1979. Dipole antennas. USSR Autors’ Certificate 816,360 (in Russian).
  17. NEWMAN, E. H., BOHLEY, P., WALTER, C. H., 1975. Two Methods for the Measurement of Antenna Efficiency. IEEE Trans. Antennas and Prop. July, vol. AP–23, no. 4, pp. 457–461.
  18. OVSYANIKOV, V. V., 2010. Electrically small whip antennas for the radio space and aviation technology. Izvestiya vuzov. Radioelektronika. vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 13–25 (in Russian).
  19. OVSYANIKOV, V. V., 2016. State development of dipole, the dielectric and plasma antennas in the context of the historical development of antenna technology. Radiofizika i elektronika. vol. 7(21), no. 3, pp. 58–73 (in Russian).
  20. OVSYANIKOV, V. V., 1976. Loop antenna. USSR Autors’ Certificate 624,540 (in Russian).
  21. OVSYANIKOV, V. V., 1981. Antenna. USSR Autors’ Certificate 624,540 (in Russian).